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Scientists Identify 6 Distinct Types of COVID-19

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Scientists have claimed that there are six distinct ‘types’ of Covid-19, each distinguished by a particular cluster of symptoms in patients, findings, if validated, can help physicians better diagnose and monitor those infected with the novel coronavirus.

Scientists Identify 6 Distinct Types of COVID-19

The yet-to-be peer reviewed study, published in the medRxiv preprint platform, used a machine learning algorithm to analyse data from a subset of around 1,600 users of the Covid Symptom Study app in the UK and US with confirmed Covid-19, who had regularly logged their symptoms between March and April.

It analysed if particular symptoms appeared together, and how this was related to the progression of the disease.

According to the scientists, led by those from King’s College London in the UK, the findings have major implications for the clinical management of Covid-19 patients.

“These findings have important implications for care and monitoring of people who are most vulnerable to severe Covid-19,” said Claire Steves, a co-author of the study from King’s College London.

They said the research can also help doctors predict who is most at risk and likely to need hospital care in a second wave of coronavirus infections.

The study noted that patient symptoms can fall under one of the six following categories: ‘flu-like’ with no fever, ‘flu-like’ with fever, gastrointestinal, severe level one with fatigue, severe level two with confusion, and severe level three accompanied by abdominal and respiratory pain.

In the first category of patients who reported ‘flu-like symptoms with no fever, the scientists said the manifestations included loss of smell, muscle pains, cough, sore throat, chest pain, but no fever.

According to their analysis, those in the second category had headache, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, fever, and loss of appetite, and those in the gastrointestinal symptoms cluster had a combination of headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, diarrhea, sore throat, chest pain, but no cough.

Under the ‘severe level one with fatigue’ category, the scientists said patients reported loss of smell, cough, headache, fever, hoarseness, chest pain, and fatigue, and those with the level two of severity expressed these same symptoms with the addition of loss of appetite, sore throat, confusion, and muscle pain.

In the most severe category, the study noted that patients experienced headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

According to the research, all people reporting symptoms experienced headache and loss of smell, with varying combinations of additional symptoms at various times. It said some of the manifestations, such as confusion, abdominal pain and shortness of breath, are not widely known as Covid-19 symptoms, yet are hallmarks of the most severe forms of the disease.

The scientists also analysed if people experiencing particular symptom clusters were more likely to require breathing support in the form of ventilation or additional oxygen.

They discovered that only 1.5 per cent of people with cluster one, 4.4 per cent of those with cluster two and 3.3 per cent in cluster 3 required breathing support.

For clusters four, five, and six, the researchers said these figures were 8.6, 9.9, and 19.8 per cent respectively.

Nearly half of the patients in cluster six, according to the study, ended up in hospital, compared with just 16 per cent of those in cluster one.

People with cluster four, five or six symptoms tended to be older and frailer, and were more likely to be overweight, the scientists said, adding that these patients had pre-existing conditions such as diabetes or lung disease than those in the other types.

“If you can predict who these people are at day five, you have time to give them support and early interventions such as monitoring blood oxygen and sugar levels, and ensuring they are properly hydrated — simple care that could be given at home, preventing hospitalisations and saving lives,” Steves said.

Carole Sudre from King’s College London, one of the lead scientists part of the study, said the research illustrates the importance of monitoring symptoms over time to make predictions about individual risk and outcomes more sophisticated and accurate.

“This approach is helping us to understand the unfolding story of this disease in each patient so they can get the best care,” Sudre said.

“Being able to gather big datasets through the app and apply machine learning to them is having a profound impact on our understanding of the extent and impact of Covid-19, and human health more widely,” added Sebastien Ourselin, a senior author of the study from King’s College London.


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Magu, Suspended EFCC Boss Says He Never Received Bribe all His Life

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Ibrahim Magu, suspended acting chairman, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, (EFCC), on Wednesday said he has never received bribe all his life.

Magu, Suspended EFCC Boss Says He Never Received Bribe all His Life

brahim Magu, suspended chairman, EFCC

Magu was testifying before the Justice Ayo Salami panel probing allegations of corruption against him.

The suspended EFCC boss said anyone who claim he had ever given him bribe should come forward before the panel to testify against him.

He was responding to allegations that he allowed a suspect Hima Aboubakar, a Nigerien National to escape from justice.

The suspended EFCC boss had opened his defense on Monday to clear corruption allegations against him.

The probe panel has allowed him to have only two lawyers represent him at a time.

On Monday & Tuesday, he was represented by Wahab Shittu and Aliyu Lemu.

In yesterday’s proceedings, he was represented by Shittu and Tosin Ojaomo.


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HP, AU Commission Sign MoU to Collaborate for Development of Entrepreneurial Skills in Africa

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HP Inc. in partnership with the African Union Commission (AUC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to foster entrepreneurial learning in Africa.

The aim of the MoU is to further cement the collaboration between these two parties in building entrepreneurial skills across the continent and to leverage HP Foundation’s Learning Initiative for Entrepreneurs (HP LIFE).

HP LIFE provides people in the region with access to 32 free, online courses in seven languages to build key business competencies as set out in the AGENDA 2063.

AGENDA 2063 is Africa’s blueprint and master plan for transforming Africa into the global powerhouse of the future.

It is the continent’s strategic framework that aims to deliver on its goal for inclusive and sustainable development and is a concrete manifestation of the pan-African drive for unity, self-determination, freedom, progress, and collective prosperity.

HP Inc. and the AUC have agreed to exchange information and material on enhancing quality education for learners and entrepreneurs in Africa, organize symposiums and conferences on education and skills development initiatives, leverage the online platform HP LIFE, which is aimed to enroll a million users between 2016 and 2025 and is part of HP’s commitment to enable better learning outcomes for 100 million people globally by 2025.

The aim of the MoU is to ensure closer collaboration and exchange of information between the parties, in a manner that creates synergies in Youth Skills Development, Academic Exchanges, and Research in Africa.

“HP is driving access to quality education globally to enable anyone and everyone to build skills to compete in the digital economy,” said Issam Essadiqi, Interim Managing Director, HP Africa. “Making education more accessible and effective helps people get better jobs, launch small businesses, and create opportunities for their families and communities.

“HP believes technology can be the great equalizer in education and is using it to enable students to get access to quality education in the classroom and beyond.”

The AU Commissioner for Human Resource, Science and Technology H.E Prof. Sarah Anyang Agbor said, “The partnership with HP will accelerate our education response to Covid-19 and beyond to ensure accessible and continued learning for African youth.

The African Union’s education agenda, which has a focus on digital learning is well complemented by the opportunities that the work with HP will bring about for African youth.

In line with prioritizing distance learning, the partnership will support individuals and institutions of learning to provide the requisite expertise and opportunities.”

HP LIFE was first offered through hundreds of local training centers in countries such as Nigeria, Tunisia, South Africa, Uganda, and Kenya, to help people learn the skills to start or grow a business or improve their employment prospects.

In 2012, HP LIFE expanded to an online platform. Since 2016, over 116,000 men and women across Africa have already received HP LIFE training. 82% of women who took part in an HP LIFE survey said that participating in the programme had increased their confidence in their future

Today, technology can support new styles of learning. PCs and tools designed for education can offer students flexibility of time, place, and pace of learning, whether in or out of the classroom, or in a blend of environments.

HP and the AUC’s joint efforts have the potential to uplift access of education and opportunities for career work and economic growth, and this collaboration has the potential to make lifelong learning a reality.


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“TIME 100” Lists Tony Elumelu among 100 Most Influential People in the World 2020

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TIME has named Tony O. Elumelu, one of Africa’s leading investors and philanthropists, in the 2020 TIME100, the annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world.

“TIME 100” Lists Tony Elumelu among 100 Most Influential People in the World 2020

The list, now in its seventeenth year, recognises the activism, innovation, and achievement of the world’s most influential individuals.

Mr Elumelu, who is one of only four Africans on the 2020 list, is recognised for his track record of business turnaround and value creation, and economic empowerment of young Africans.

Tony Elumelu is the founder and chairman of Heirs Holdings, his family owned investment company, committed to improving lives and transforming Africa, through long-term investments in strategic sectors of the African economy, including financial services, hospitality, power, energy and healthcare.

He is the Chairman of top pan-African financial services group, the United Bank for Africa (UBA), which operates in 20 countries in Africa, the United Kingdom, France, and is the only African bank with a commercial deposit taking licence in the United States.

The bank provides corporate, commercial, SME and consumer banking services to more than 21 million customers globally.

Elumelu also chairs Nigeria’s largest quoted conglomerate, Transcorp, whose subsidiaries include Transcorp Power, one of the leading generators of electricity in Nigeria and Transcorp Hotels Plc, Nigeria’s foremost hospitality brand.

Mr Elumelu is the most prominent champion of entrepreneurship in Africa. In 2010, he created The Tony Elumelu Foundation (TEF), the philanthropy empowering a new generation of African entrepreneurs, catalysing economic growth, driving poverty eradication and ensuring job creation across all 54 African countries.

Since inception, the Foundation has funded just under 10,000 entrepreneurs and created a digital ecosystem of over one million as part of its ten year, US$100m commitment through the TEF Entrepreneurship Programme.

Self-funded, the Foundation is increasingly sharing its unique ability to identify, train, mentor and fund young entrepreneurs across Africa, with institutions such as the UNDP, the ICRC and leading European development agencies.

Tony Elumelu Named In “TIME 100” List Of 100 Most Influential People In The World 2020Heirs Holdings, which serves as a corporate role model for African businesses, and the Tony Elumelu Foundation will both celebrate 10 years of impact in November.

Their mission continues to be inspired by Mr Elumelu’s economic philosophy of Africapitalism, which positions the private sector, and most importantly entrepreneurs, as the catalyst for the social and economic development of the continent.


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