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Why Earth is Warming

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By OkokoChidozie Christian

[email protected];  09025179984

Energy from the sun heats the earth surface, warms the atmosphere and powers the ocean currents.Scientifically, records show that oceans are heated by 14×1018 Joules of energy.

Why Earth is Warming

Scientists measure oceans because they absorb the vast majority of the heat associated with global warming, and the earth’s temperature is dictated by ocean temperatures.

In fact, more than 90% of global warming heat ends up in the oceans with the fastest warming being the Atlantic, Indian and Northern Pacific oceans.

Even, they absorb more of the heating from human-carbon emissions, and temperature is not rising uniformly across the planet because the sun heats the equatorial tropics more than the polar regions.

Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have released large amounts of carbon-dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which has changed the earth’s climate.

And, for more than a hundred years, air temperature has been measured by weather observers all over the world.

Averaging these daily measurements over a whole year allows us to see the long-term trend instead of the short-term weather events.

Hence, the long-term trend is that: the earth is warming over time.

Moreover, the greenhouse gases that have mostly contributed to the earth warming include: carbon-dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide to mention but a few.

I hereby describe them,thus:

Carbon-dioxide, CO2

Carbon-dioxide mainly comes from burning organic materials; coal, oil, gas, wood and solid wastes. Atmospheric carbon-dioxide- the most dangerous, prevalent and the highest level greenhouse gas ever recorded; and has increased by more than 40% since pre-industrial times.

The carbon-dioxide gas absorbs solar energy and keep heat close to earth surface, rather than letting it escape into space.

And that trapping of heat is what we are known today as “greenhouse effect”. This is what keeps the earth habitable-otherwise, it would be too cold at night.

Methane, CH4

Methane concentration has been increased to more than 2.5times.Oil, gas and mining operations release large amount of methane- a potent greenhouse gas, either by accident or design.

Information gathered shows that global energy sector was responsible for nearly 135million tons of methane emissions in 2022, a slight rise from the in 2021.

Also, about 40% emissions attributed to human activity, second to agriculture.

Methane is responsible for about 30% of the rise in global temperature since the Industrial Revolution. Its rapid and sustained reductions are the key to limiting near-term global warming and improved air quality.

Nitrous oxide,N2O

Climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and warmer temperatures are changing nitrous oxide emissions.

Nitrous oxide, known as “laughing gas” is the most important greenhouse gas after carbon-dioxide and methane, and the biggest human-related threat to the ozone layer.

Though, it is rapidly increasing, mostly due to large-scale farming with synthetic fertilizers and cattle ranching.

Moreover, natural cycle and fluctuations has been a cause to the earth’s climate changing several times over the last 800years, and our era of global warming is directly attributed to human activities as afore-mentioned. In the US, the largest source of greenhouse gas emission is transportation, followed closely by electricity production and industrial activities. While in Nigeria the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions are waste and industrial pollutions.

Nevertheless, the impacts of global warming are felt by people everywhere in one way or the other, but are experienced most by the under-privileged, economically marginalized, and people of colour for whom climate change is often a key driver of poverty, displacement, hunger and social unrest.

Curbing these dangerous climate change requires very deep cut in emission as well as the use of alternatives to fossil fuels worldwide.

The good news is that countries around the globe have formerly committed as part of the 2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement to lower the emission by setting new standards and crafting new policies to meet or exceed those standards.But, the bad news is that we are not working fast enough.

To avoid the worst impacts of climate change, scientists tells us that we can reduce global carbon emission by as much as 40% by 2030, and for that to happen global communities must step up to decarbonize electricity generation by equitably transitioning from fossil fuel-based production to renewable energy sources like wind, solar and geothermal energy to mention but a few. Also, to electrify our automobiles; and to maximize energy efficiency in our building appliances and industries.

Projection from Earth System Modelshows that if we find ways to release fewer heat trapping gases into the air, global average temperature will increase about 10C to 1.50C (33.80F to 34.70F). And having adapt to changes resulting from a warmer world, our actions would help keep the earth a loveable place for all.


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Nigerian Banks Lost over N8Bn to Internet Fraudsters in 2022-  EFCC

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Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), yesterday said  that banks in the country lost over N8 billion to internet fraud, otherwise known as Yahoo-Yahoo Boys, in 2022.

Nigerian Banks Lost over N8Bn to Internet Fraudsters in 2022-  EFCC

Ola Olukoyede, chairman of the commission, also disclosed how Yahaya Bello, former governor of Kogi state allegedly moved a staggering $720,000 from the state account to pay his child’s school fees.

Olukoyede,  who made the disclosure during an interactive session with media executives in Abuja, narrated how cyber crime has hurt the companies and its negative effects in attracting direct foreign investment for the country. He lamented that no fewer than 71 percent of companies operating in Nigeria were victims of cybercrime in 2022 even as he argued that the Commission’s war against internet fraud is about safeguarding the country’s future.

“In 2022 alone, I’m waiting for the report of 2023, we discovered that more than 71 percent of Nigerian industries, companies and firms fell victim to cyber crime. Now, which country or company would thrive with this kind of thing? “You want to attract foreign direct investment; the moment you come in, Yahoo boys will attack your platform. You start losing money and you think they would stay?

“Is that not what we are seeing? We are rescuing the future of Nigeria by going into this cyber crime investigation and prosecution.

“Now, within that period, the Nigerian economy lost $706 million (via) these companies through cyber crime, to the activities of these Yahoo Yahoo boys because we don’t take them seriously now, not knowing that we are sitting on a keg of gunpowder.

“The alarming statistics continued with Nigerian banks losing over N8 billion to electronic transfer fraud in the first  nine months of 2022.

“A system lost over N8 billion to a particular scheme of fraud and you are asking EFCC to close its eyes to that kind of situation. Are we even fair to ourselves?”

He said the agency is prosecuting two of its operatives for violating the agency’s code of conduct.

He said the commission has made some reforms to enhance its fight against corruption, including the creation of the directorate of fraud risk assessment/control and ethics/integrity.

 

 


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Students Loans’ Beneficiaries to Start Repayment 2 Years after Graduation-  NELFUND:

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Nigerian Education Loan Fund (NELFUND) has said that students in tertiary institutions and approved vocational centres would start repayment of the loan two years after graduation.

Students Loans’ Beneficiaries to Start Repayment 2 Years after Graduation-  NELFUND:

However, NELFUND management specifically stated that the repayment of the loan would commence if the students secured a job or went into business.

Mr. Akintunde Sawyerr, managing director, NELFUND, said the Act specify a moratorium of two years after graduation for the students to begin repayment of the loan.

Sawyerr said if the students start work, his employer would be expected to remit 10 percent into NELFUND dedicated account.

He added: “The loan does not have a specified repayment tenure. It makes it easy for students to apply for the loan. NELFUND would pay according to the documents provided by the institutions. We cannot put tenure on the loan; some will die, drop out, ‘Japa’ or refuse to pay. While those who went into business would pay into same account.

“It is a revolving a loan. We will not put students under pressure to get the loan and we are not going to state a tenure because it is not a commercial loan.’’

According to him, the loan is meant for students in public universities, polytechnics, colleges of education and vocational institutes, who apply via NELFUND portal and are expected to present their JAMB admission letter, NIN and BVN.

He explained that non-students would not have access to the loan and that NELFUND has put the necessary machinery in place to ensure that beneficiaries can be reached when the need arises.

His words: “We are using technology to run the new system. The process of application is online through our dedicated portal and we are limiting human contact as much as possible. Once you have a Bank Verification Number (BVN) and National Identification Number (NIN), which are parts of the requirements, we will have access to your data and all your accounts. This will also help us to know if you are qualified or not,” Sawyerr stated.

The MD disclosed that students already in institution are eligible to apply for the loan at any level of their study and must be at the beginning of each academic session.

He noted that such students would have to provide their admission and matriculation details in addition to BVN and NIN.

Sawyerr added that about 1.2 million Nigerian students in tertiary institutions and government-recognized vocational centres would be among the first batch of beneficiaries and that the figure would increase as time goes on.

The NELFUND boss disclosed that the scheme would be funded from one per cent of the total annual revenue by the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), which would amount to N194 billion if the agency meets its projection.

Sawyerr observed that the loan would be paid in two segments, the first, being the school fees, which would be paid directly to the institutions while stipend would be paid into students’ account for their day-to-day upkeep.

He added that the amount individual students would access varies because of the course of study, school fees and geographical location of the institutions.

“You don’t start paying back the loan until two years after your National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) scheme and you have secured a job or business. A beneficiary can defer repayment if he has not secured a job, but if after due diligence, he/she defaulted, then the student becomes a criminal and we will work with government agency that can help us get the money back, for example, EFCC, ICPC,” Sawyerr stated.


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GPA Raises Alarm, Says Malaria Vaccine Can Cause Meningitis

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Global Prolife Alliance (GPA), global health organization, has told the National Assembly that the intended malaria vaccine currently proposed by Bill Gates, American billionaire, for Nigeria can trigger meningitis in the populace.

GPA Raises Alarm, Says Malaria Vaccine Can Cause Meningitis

Dr. Philip Njemanze, chairman of GPA, gave the warning in a statement released to newsmen in Owerri, the Imo state capital.

Njemanze, known for being pro-health in the Catholic church, charged the national assembly not to be in a hurry to succumb to the pressure of the bill currently before the house.

He said the vaccine may trigger the deaths of millions of Nigerian children prone to cerebral meningitis, especially in the northern part of the country.

Part of the letter read “Among the side effects is a tenfold increase in cerebral meningitis. Nigeria is endemic for cerebral meningitis. A tenfold increase could cause the deaths of millions of children, especially in northern Nigeria.

“Please intervene and call for a public hearing, for an open public discussion on the pros and cons with expert opinions from both sides. This will help the Nigerian people to be better informed about granting or withholding consent for the vaccination.

“Your intervention could save millions of lives, especially in northern Nigeria, where meningitis is most endemic, particularly at this time of serious insecurity,” Njemanze warned.

 

 


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